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A Comprehensive Guide to Homeschooling



In this lesson we are going to learn about the growth of a seed into a young plant which is called germination.   


Structure of a seed


There are three main parts in a seed.


  • Embryo
  • Food Store (Stored food)
  • Seed coat


Embryo – This is a tiny plant inside a seed.


Foodstore – These are food stored by the parent plant.


Seed coat – This is the hard cover around the embryo and foodstore.





The embryo rests inside the seed until the conditions are right for it to start to grow.

E.g. – Likewise some seeds can stay in this resting state for hundreds of years.



Starting to grow


What is ‘germination’?

The growth of a seed into a young plant or a seedling is called germination.


What are the conditions (factors) that plants need to germinate?


  • Water
  • Warmth
  • Air (oxygen)


Steps of Germination


  • When conditions are right the seed starts to take in water.
  • As water is taken in, the seed swells bigger and bigger until the coat splits apart.
  • Air can then get to the seed. The oxygen in the air helps the baby plant burn the food packed inside the seed.
  • Burning the food produces energy. The baby plant uses the energy to grow.
  • A tiny root grows downwards and a shoot begins to grow upwards.
  • The shoot develops and reaches toward the light while the root system develops deep in the soil.
  • Tiny leaves sprout at the end of the shoot letting Photosynthesis to take place.
  • The primary root grows longer and thicker together with the secondary roots. The leaves grow larger.
  • More and more leaves grow and the stem becomes thicker and stronger.